Tuesday, May 26, 2020
How to Write an HBS MBA Essay SampleWhen you're just starting out in life, one of the most important things that you can do is to learn how to write an HBS MBA Essay Sample. Some people think that just because a business school has MBA as part of their curriculum, they don't need to take a business writing course. This couldn't be further from the truth.Students who are entering business schools to take the MBA program want to know how to write an HBS MBA Essay Sample so that they can get the attention of admissions officers and the faculty. Without an HBS MBA Essay Sample, they may not get admitted into the business school of their choice. With this article, you will learn some tips that will help you in writing an HBS MBA Essay Sample.A business school needs different types of essays that it accepts each year. In fact, most business schools require an essay to include different subjects, depending on the type of business school that their admission. To make it easier for students t o remember what they have to do when they enter the essay, the format of an HBS MBA Essay Sample will also differ from school to school. Here are some HBS MBA Essay Sample formats that you might come across when doing research for your MBA admissions:You'll be able to find the different essays when you do research for your MBA application. The first question that you will ask yourself is: How much time will I have to prepare? If the answer is too short, you may consider saving money by choosing a less-conventional format and sticking with it through the process.Writing a HBS MBA Essay Sample is a challenge that will demand that you are creative with your writing. You will need to incorporate your personality and talents into the whole business writing process, so that you are able to stand out from other candidates and make it easy for admissions officers to pick you out of the crowd.Make sure that you are familiar with the rules of an MBA essay. This is a requirement that a busines s school will use to select students that will attend their MBA program, so you'll want to know how to write an HBS MBA Essay Sample before writing it.For every subject that you write about, be sure to include the key words, and facts and figures that will relate to the essay. Keep your essay short so that you will have enough space to discuss the important points that are going to help you with your MBA admissions. If you can fit all the information that you have to offer into the space provided, then that is better for your MBA application.
Saturday, May 16, 2020
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
When a child is born, he knows little about the world that he will spend the rest of his life in. Through experiences as a young child Ã¢â¬â such as experiences with parents, culture, family values, etc. Ã¢â¬â it is possible for oneÃ¢â¬â¢s childhood environment to shape many aspects of his life. Indeed, one could argue that a childhood environment can greatly influence how one will spend the rest of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life. The life of Nelson Mandela is an interesting example of this ideology. In his case, the connection between childhood and life is special and goes even further than the first instinctive connections that often come to mind. When one examines the interesting details the childhood of Nelson Mandela, one is compelled to concludeÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦But while the British tended to adopt a policy of benign neglect, the inclusion of a highly discriminatory Ã¢â¬Å"colour bar clauseÃ¢â¬ in the Union Act sowed the seeds of black protest, opposition, and revolution. What followed was blatant discrimination, which included the introduction of blacks-only territorial reserves under the Natives Land Act of 1913, more stringent enforcement of the system to restrict blacks from entering urban areas, and the disenfranchisement of blacks (Gibson, 34). Mandela earned a law degree from University of South African in 1942 and he was a prominent member of JohannesburgÃ¢â¬â¢s African National Congress (ANC). In 1952, he became ANC deputy national president advocating nonviolent resistance to apartheid (racial segregation). However, after a group of peaceful demonstrators were massacred in 1960, Mandela organized a paramilitary branch of the ANC to carry out guerrilla warfare against the oppressive government. After being acquitted in 1962 on charges of treason, he was arrested in 1964, convicted of sabotage, and sentenced to life in prison, where he became the leading symbol of South AfricaÃ¢â¬â¢s black majority. Mandela was released in 1990 after over twenty years of imprisonment as an expression of President DeKlerkÃ¢â¬â¢s commitment to change. He was later elected as the President of South Africa. Mandela and DeKlerk were jointly awarded the peace prize in 1993 (Wesley).Show MoreRelatedDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words Ã |Ã 1617 PagesUniversity, for their work on the supplement on making oral and written presentations; Gretchen Spreitzer of the University of Southern California for her work on the chapter on gaining power and influence; Richard M. Steers of the University of Oregon for his work on the motivation chapter; Pat Seybolt and Troy Nielsen of the University of Utah for their work on the chapter on managing conflict; Cathy German of Miami University for her assistance in revising Supplement A, and John Tropman, University of
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Questions: Prepare a paper in which you evaluate the Tyco International case study provided in Kaplan (2009)and Stephen et al. (2012). Be sure to address the following in your paper: Briefly summarize the historical scenario surrounding Tyco International. How do you think the spending and the loans were able to go on for so long? Evaluate the outcome of events. Was the punishment justified? Why or why not? Is it difficult for us to see ethical breaches that we ourselves commit? Answers: Introduction: There are several ways to define ethics, which are linked with morality. Any organizations code of ethics would be valuable. Organizational ethics embrace the moral principle to develop the ethical standards of employees, workers and top most managers. This principle just moved beyond the accepted values to behave constantly in a moral way. It is not only just appearing to be moral, but acting morally. As a natural fact, it is important that each corporation, firm and professional organizations must have ethical guidelines. AICPA, PCAOB (Public Company Accounting Oversight Board), IMA and the SEC, these all are having their own code of ethics, which are based upon moral principle. This code of moral principle need to be prompted widely, so that both the inside and outside stakeholders become aware to take permission on their actions being constituents of the organization. It is also necessary that the CEOs, directors or the other top managers should clearly state about the personal responsibility and their code of ethics to the all employers, clients, investors and vendors. Summarization on the historical scenario surrounding Tyco International: In 1960, Tyco Inc. was formed as a holding and investment company with the two segments: Tyco Semiconductors and the Materials Research laboratory. In 1970 stock holders and sales equity reached $15million and $34 million respectively. In 1980 Tyco management focused on the acquisition of subsidiaries. Tyco divided the company into three business segments. Dennis Kozolowski became the CEO of the Tyco International and adaptation of aggressive acquisition strategy is made by the company again in 1990. Tycos aggressive strategy continued till 2000 purchasing general surgical innovation. In The 2001, the fiscal year, Mallinckrodt Inc. is acquired by the Tyco Complexity grew within Tycos subsidiaries, in January 2002 A scandal occurred due to the dishonesty of CEO (Dennis) on February 3, 2003. After removing the scandal, Tyco made international moves in 2003, within the company and formed its Adhesives and plastic business segments. To enhance the consumer awareness and to revive the corporate image Tyco launched a global print-advertising campaign in June 2004. In 2005 VSNL acquired Tyco Global Network from Tyco International for $130 million. Tycos revenue downfall caused about $17 billion by the end of the fiscal year 2006. Though there was a strong cash flow, decreased debt and growing revenue, Tyco and its board of director give approval to separate Tyco into three segments. In June 2007, there was a corporate separation of Tyco which split the company into three independent companies: Covidien Ltd. (Tyco Healthcare), Tyco International (Tyco Engineered products, Fire and Security services) and TE Connectivity Ltd. (Tyco Electronics). In the past years Dennis was considered as the highest paid and most celebrated CEOs. With a market cap of $1.5 billion, Dennis named a company as TYCO from backwater manufacturer into industrial conglomerate, which is worth more than $100 billion. He was lauded as one of the top 25 managers of the year. In 2002, it was time when fall came. Dennis was accused by the Manhattan district attorney for the cheating of 1 million in sales tax on his art purchases. This led to a larger investigation made by DA and Tyco board on Dennis. With the following year Dennis was found to cheat his company over hundreds of millions of dollars, which includes unauthorized bonus also. Dennis was sentenced to prison for anindeterminate period of 8 to 25 years. Reason behind the spending and loans weretaken for so long: According to the Tyco Fraud Information center, there were accounting errors but there was no fraud problem. Tycos CEO, Dennis Koslowski was accused with other top managers of giving themselves loans with low interest or without interest, which are not approved by the Tyco board. Some of these loans were part of key employee loan program offered by the company. They were also accused of selling their stocks, without telling the investors. These are the reason behind to spend and to take loans were so easy for Dennis and other top managers for so long. Evaluation of the outcome of the event: As an outcome of this event, people, who have destroyed Bear Streams, Lehman or AIG, are now spending time with the Dennis behind the bar. After being removed from the scandal, Tyco made international moves in 2003 within the company by forming its adhesives business segments. Other changes also took place in Tycos corporate governance (Stephens, Vance, and Pettegrew, 2015). Tycos board chose John Krol as the lead director. Tycos board adopted new governance principles and policies on delegation of authority, which in turn strengthened the control over the disbursements of cash within the company (Brown, 2005). Then the final improvement took place on corporate governance, which has come under the guidance of the Ethical Conduct. The guidance was imposed to make the employees aware about the correct procedures and to give warning for unethical behavior and practices (Tyco to split into 3 separate companies, 2006). Opinion over the justification of the punishment: The punishment was not justified. Though, bail was not granted to Dennis due to not having access to the prosecutorial evidence. The New York governor has the power to give mercy and criminals are released on parole, in an indeterminate sentence a vast discretion is there, such as, based on good behavior Dennis could be released in a couple of years (Gardiner, 2006). Still it is a fact that Tyco always remains strong as WorldCom and Enron, whose downfall is caused by its leaders. The Shareholders, workers get affected too (Clarke, 2011). Our possibilities to see and to commit the ethical breaches: A study by Touche and Deloitte in 2009 indicated that a large number of teenagers suffer from the contradiction on ethical readiness for workforce. There are 80% of teens, who appreciated their confidence for being prepared to take ethical decision in future; even they are able to accept their unethical behavior in present. There are only 25% of teens, who have admitted that they would be very likely to revel knowledge of unethical behavior in the work font (Dresser-Rand buys valve business from Tyco, 2007). These are not only cases; in the case of the parents, they do not even want to accept the possibility that their children can do anything wrong (Johnson, 2012). Even when their children are fully admit their unethical act. Some teachers and the school administrators punish student for their classroom misdeeds (Kaplan, 2015). This situation may lead to leave the profession or taking the other way to make the students realized about their misdeeds. There are few cases, where no accountability for the misdeed, allows students to cheat them without the punishment and they started believing that cheating is an acceptable activity (Ferrara and LaMeau, 2012). Conclusion: Ethics says about the individual value system started developing while the education of a person reaches to the college and further education contribute a little to bring out the changes. There are varieties of reason, to the people, who performs unethical acts. Kohlberg made classification on cognitive frameworks to divide ethical behavior into 6 categories, which are considered as a 6 levels of moral reasoning, they are- stage one indicates being ethical for fear of being punished. Stage two describes being ethical is out of concern. Stage three describes to be ethical for the peer pressure to do the same. Stage four says to ethical due to the rules, laws, regulations and standards, Stage five describes social responsibility for being ethical out of concern to do good for others. Lastly stage six describes the concern for the moral principle and knowing the correct thing to do. References Brown, M. (2005). Corporate integrity. New York: Cambridge University Press. Dresser-Rand buys valve business from Tyco. (2007). World Pumps, 2007(489), p.6. Ferrara, M. and LaMeau, M. (2012). Corporate disasters. Detroit: Gale, Cengage Learning. Ferrell, O., Fraedrich, J. and Ferrell, L. (2010). Business ethics. Mason, Ohio: South-Western, Cengage learning. Gardiner, S. (2006). A Perfect Moral Storm: Climate Change, Intergenerational Ethics and the Problem of Moral Corruption. Environmental Values, 15(3), pp.397-413. Gavai, A. (2010). Business ethics. Mumbai [India]: Himalaya Pub. House. Johnson, C. (2012). Organizational ethics. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: SAGE Publications. Kaplan, D. (2015). KOZ MAKES HIS CASE. Fortune, 160(11), pp.14-16. Stephens,, W., Vance,, C. and Pettegrew,, L. (2015). Embracing Ethics and Morality. The CPA Journal, 82(1). Tyco to split into 3 separate companies. (2006). Pump Industry Analyst, 2006(1), p.16.
Thursday, April 16, 2020
Introduction Advertising is a key for the economy of consumers. Without it, people would face difficulty knowing what services and products are available. Adverting indeed is vital to a prosperous social order. It is also the financial basis of important contemporary mass media (John Vivian, 1997: 315). Advertising performs the dual role of informing and entertaining in the media. It informs us of the products and services that are available for us to buy and use. Along the way, it also entertains us with some amusement, witty, or clever use of words and photos. Media advertising has another vital function. It helps offset the price of the media communication itself to customers. If we didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have ads on radio or television, the expense of programming would need to return through taxes, government monies, or sponsorships (Helen Katz, 2003: 5-7). Advertisers know the value of product placement. As the personal media turned into the standard and mass media fragment, advertisers are again trying how they reach consumers. We will write a custom essay sample on The Relationship between Advertising Industry and Media in 20th Century or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page More dollars of total advertising budgets are diverted to more targeted technologies while a smaller percentage will be spent on traditional media. Data mining and personalized electronic approaches are increasingly critical to marketplace success. Researchers and advertisers used data mining process to see what websites a person visits, what media the consumer uses, what did she/he buy and other to uncover economic data and demographic to define and classify prospective customers. Looking out databases for prior purchase information and assumptions concerning spending habits based on each homeÃ¢â¬â¢s location, provides advertisers with clues on how to focus on specific customers (Peter B. et al, 2007. P. 254). For many decades, the newspaper, magazine, radio and television media have been the main sources for manufacturers to advertise their products (Wilson, James and Wilson, Stan Le Roy. 998. P. 319). In this essay, we are going to find out how has the relationship between media and advertising changed in 20th century? And how both worked together? Our focus will be on radio, television and Internet, because they came to exist in 20th century and had a big influence on the world of advertising. After giving a short history of advertising, we will discuss them one by one. History of Advertising The first advertising was oral, in ancient times used by barkers in the marketplace shouting the wares of merchants. Nowadays some advertisements are still oral. If we tune in television we will hear barkers shouting the stuff of automobile dealers. The history of outdoor advertising can go back to posted notices on papyrus in ancient Egypt for runaway slaves. Notices of runaway slaves and bond servants, with rewards offered, may have been the first written advertising, instead of something for sale. During all the centuries of slavery such notices were posted for the logical reason that these valuable pieces of property did not enjoy their lifes condition (Irving Fang, 1997: 61). Even at this early point in the history, advertisements were of key importance, when it came to informing consumers about new products. Coffee is one of such example; in the Middle East coffee was introduced as a drink for the first time, in the fifteenth century. The quick spread of coffee as both a drink and a pattern of behaviour (coffeehouses became social gathering places) advertising of coffees benefits was taking a huge place in newspapers (Mediaknowall). Advertising agency was another facet of advertising in the late nineteenth century, an American phenomenon which spread to Europe and then all over the world. The notion of agency began earlier in the century in France, where newspaper publishers considered the acceptance of ads directly from advertisers as beneath their dignity. Instead, they retailed space in bulk to contractors who sold the space to those with goods to sell. Later on, this concept was adopted by American agencies (Fang, 1997: 62). Wilson and Le Roy Wilson declare that establishing the first advertising agency goes to Volney Palmer, who started the agency in Philadelphia in 1841. By 1870, however, N. W. Ayer, the Americas oldest ad agency functioning today, began representing advertisers, helping them get the best results for their advertising dollars (1998: 296). In the World War II many civilian firms cut back on their advertising budgets. Others simply changed the content of their ads and instructed consumers how to make their products last until after the war instead of selling their products . The growth of advertising can be described as fantastic from the end of the war in 1945 to the late 1980s. The exchange from a war economy to a consumer economy encouraged a spurt in advertising as manufacturers hurried to get the order for all the goods and services that people had gave up buying because of the war (Joseph R. Dominick, 1990: 366). By the 1950s, advertising in its own right was considered as a profession, not just the remit of newspapermen or poets who were unsuccessful. It draw the attention both men and women who wanted to enjoy using their creativity in order to make some serious cash. Hard-working, hard drinking, unconventional and often amoral, the flannel suited Ad Man became a recognisable archetype, the personification of a new kind of cool (Mediaknowall). The period from 1950 to 1975, saw the incredible increasing 490 percent amount of money which spent on advertising. Also during this period a number of significant developments took place. TVÃ¢â¬â¢s growth which was of the most important significant developments as a national advertising medium had an impact on both radio and magazines. Radio became a medium and primarily used by local advertisers. Magazines that designed for particular audiences attracted more advertisers, but general publications (such as Colliers and Look) were unable to compete with TV and finally went under. Also in this period, the consumer became a more powerful force in the Responding marketplace. To increased consumer pressure, during the 1970s the Federal Trade Commission introduced corrective advertising. From 1950 to 1980, direct advertising which was done mostly through the mail, increased by more than 800percent. This increase was due to the growth of computerized mailing lists the expanded use of credit card shopping, and the coming out of the telephone as a marketing tool. Finally, the advertisers have become more stylish in their methods appreciation goes back to the emergence of computers and other electronic data processing devices. (R. Dominick, 1990: 366) Types of media like newspaper, magazine, radio and television were the main sources for manufacturers to advertise their products but that began changing in the 1980s and 1990s. For example, in the 1980s some advertisers like Coca Cola began operating commercials in theaters before showing the coming attraction trailers; the aim was targeting untapped audience of moviegoers. The reaction of clients was not too positive. In a 1988 survey, one-third of the audiences stated that they favored the advertising in movie theaters one-third were opposed to, and one-third didnt care. By1996, a similar survey found that between two-thirds and three-quarters of movie goers only 2 to 3 percent objected the commercials and others all liked it. By increasing the advertising time to follow the lead of European nations was the next step. At that time theater patrons in France could expect to see an average of 20 minutes of advertising before the movies started. And England was running around 7 minutes of commercials in movie houses. During the1990s the traditional media also became concerned as many large department store chains turned to the World Wide Web not only to advertise their products using the Internet for mail orders but also to sell them (Wilson and Le Roy, 1998: 319). Advertising and radio The 1920s was the beginning of radio as an advertising medium. Radio became an attractive vehicle for national advertisers by the rise of network broadcasting. About $27 million was spent on network advertising by 1930, and advertising agencies were responsible of producing the most popular shows of the day. The stock market collapse of 1929 had a terrible effect on the U. S. economy. Total dollars spent on advertising dropped from $2. 8 billion in 1929 to $1. 7 billion in 1935. It would take a decade for the industry to recover (R. Dominick, 1990. P. 366). The rapid growth of radio1920s was a means of free home entertainment, the only cost after the initial purchase of a radio set was to hear such advertising as the jingle. That was no cost at all, to a population suffering the economic effects of the Depression. Prices were not mentioned in radio ads until 1932. Catchy tunes like Ã¢â¬Å"Pepsi cola hits the spot, twelve full thats ounces, a lot Ã¢â¬ spun around in peoples heads as often as any song on the Hit Parade. Jingles even appeared in outdoor advertisements, such as the famous Burma Shave signs that motorists read, line after line, as they sped along the American highways (Fang, 1997: 64). The Queensboro Realty Company in 1922 for five radio talks that praised the benefits of living in the country paid $300. Immediately after that other companies realized the advertising potential of this system and followed suit. Other stations began to copy arrangement, and broadcasting would be supported by advertising, so the problem of financing radio was solved (R. Dominick, 1990: 178). The idea of broadcasting commercials in 1922 took a little selling. Broadcasters worried about how the government which licensed them, would feel about what Herbert Hoover and after that Secretary of Commerce referred to as being Ã¢â¬Å"drowned in advertising chatterÃ¢â¬ . Broad casters and advertisers also worried about ads that spread without having control on them or without anyone having any idea about who was getting the message and what effect it was having, or whether any one at all was paying attention. An answer that was comforting came when a commercial for Mineralava cosmetics offered a free photo of actress Marion Davies, who had spoken about How I Make Up for the Movies. Ã¢â¬ Many requests poured in from listeners. Albert Lasker, an important figure in advertising industry during the first half of the twentieth century, heavily led his agency, Lord Thomas, into radio. Many of the early radio shows were produced by LaskerÃ¢â¬â¢s agency including the most popular of all, Amos Ã¢â¬ËnÃ¢â¬â¢ Andy (Fang, 1997: 64). Reasonably inexpensive, radio lends itself to repeated play of advertisements to drive home a message introduced in more expensive media like television. Nonetheless, radio does not propose any opportunities for the visual display. Radio lends itself to jingles that can contribute to a lasting image. Even though the images listeners create in their minds from audio suggestions can be more effective than those set out visually on television. (Vivian, 1997: 322) Television and advertising Televising Advertising Jingles typified an effort to be creative, to make an ad something more than the notification that goods were for sale. Advertisers acknowledged, before most of the rest of society did, that is to be expected for the public to remember something enjoyable. That helps to explain for people who have seen the same commercial many times sit entranced to watch it again without getting bored. It is also when the program is on why a child who runs off will come back running for the commercial. More thought, cold cash, effort, and energy go into television commercials nowadays than into television programs. (Fang, 1997: 64-65) TVs prospective as an advertising medium wasnt realized until 1948, although J. Walter Thompson agency in 1930 was the one first aired the television commercial. The advertisers name has been carried by many early programs, such as Milton Berles popular Texaco Star Theater the Camel News Caravan and The Hallmark Hall of Fame (which is still on the air today), because there was only for the one sponsor total program. Soon the masses in the United States preferred the Television advertising medium among other adverting medium (Wilson and Le Roy, 1998: 298). Television can offer unmatched impact, as a moving and visual medium, and the rapid growth of both network and local television advertising, far outpacing other media, indicates its success in reaching a diverse mass audience. Drawbacks include the fact that production costs can be high (Vivian, 1997: 322). In the 1980s, a new form of electronic advertising developed: direct-response home shopping services with the development of cable and satellite TV. These cable networks (HSN, QVC, etc. ) sell on sale products directly to consumers, who telephone in their orders to banks of operators. Home-shopping networks pay a percentage of the profits from sales generated in their viewing area to the cable operators, instead of buying air time from these cable operators. This type of direct selling is expected to take on new dimensions when interactive-TV and virtual reality technologies find their position in the marketplace (Wilson and Le Roy, 1998: 298). Vivian states that advertisers were forced by the expense of television time to make their advertisements shorter and shorter. A result is ad clutter, a phenomenon in which advertisements compete against each other and reduce the impact of all of them (1997: 322). 15 second ads started running by all three television networks in 1986, this allowed them to reduce the cost of per ad, and then they could run ads twice more than before, and maintain revenue levels. The 15-second advertisements called Ã¢â¬Å"15sÃ¢â¬ posed a new creative challenge to the industry: covering a powerful message in half the time and they were still able to sell the product to the consumer. The popularity of 15s started to decline by the early 1990s, and they could only represent 32 percent of the market. (Wilson and Le Roy, 1998: 310) Advertising and Internet Gary Thuerk was the creator of the first spam email advertisement ever to hit the inbox, also known as the father of spam, not a very inspiring title (Ã¢â¬Å"The History of Online AdvertisingÃ¢â¬ ). The earliest documented junk e-mailing was written May 1 but It was sent May 3, 1978 (Brad Templeton). In the year 1980 the time Usenet, which was an online debate forum where people were capable of posting messages on new groups, was created, it used to get flooded with new posts, but as soon as the spam and mass messaging was introduced, people were sending out huge number of emails (Ã¢â¬Å"The History of Online AdvertisingÃ¢â¬ ). Rachel argued that the first online advertisement appeared on the web in 1994, prompting the starting of the online advertising world. The period of experimentation by the advertisers and publishers was the first part, pioneering on ad formats and technology. DoubleClick was one of the first ad-serving technologies which was launched in 1995, (2011). The quick growing world of computers during the 1990s also brought about a new arena for advertising: the World Wide Web. Like other newspapers in the mid 1990s, the San Jose, California Mercury News founded a news Web site on the Internet. Editors put news from the newspaper on the Web site, thus people with computers were able to select news online. Every time an electronic reader tapped into Mercury Center, as the Mercurys Web site dubbed it was recorded as a hit. (Vivian, 1997: 322) During the first half of 1996, companies spent around $66. 7 million to advertise on the web with two-thirds of the spending coming from computer and telecommunications companies. The two biggest advertisers were Microsoft ($2. 9 million) and Netscape ($2. 1 million) while IBM was the third largest spender (s2. 0 million) and ATT (s17 million came in sixth. Toyota was the 13th largest web advertiser. In the meantime, a major U. S. cereal company started dabbling in this new technology in 1996. Kellogg Company launched what was seen as the worlds largest test of interactive TV advertising. (Wilson and Le Roy, 1998: 298) In 1995, Mercury Center was receiving 325,000 hits per a day, compared with the 270. 000 circulation of the newsprint product. The potential of web sites as advertising vehicles has not been lost on newspapers or other organizations including ATT and Microsoft, which also have established news sites online. Obviously, one pro of online advertising is that readers can click deeper and deeper levels of information about advertised goods Much more information can be packed into a layered online message than within the space and time limits of a print or broadcast ad (Vivian, 1997: 322). Conclusion In this study, we attempted to a good extent to discuss the main changes and developments in advertising and its relation with mass media. As we mentioned previously that adverting is essential to a prosperous social order. It is also the financial basis of important contemporary mass media. For many decades, the newspaper, magazine, radio and television media have been the main sources for manufacturers to advertise their products and goods. The major advent in the beginning of 20th century was radio as an advertising medium. The rise of network broadcasting made radio attractive vehicle for national advertisers. Also, radio freed advertising from its relationship to literacy by communicating through music, jingles, and the spoken word. Advertising agencies were not persuaded at first, but soon radio became their new medium and advertisers discovered its seemingly endless possibilities. Next, television arrived, and its rise was a significant improvement as a national advertising medium. TVs progress had an influence on both radio and magazines. Radio became a medium used primarily by local advertisers. Magazines that intended for specific audiences attracted more advertisers. Later on, in the late of the century, the quickly increasing world of computers during the 1990s also introduced a new ground for advertising: the World Wide Web. Like other newspapers in the mid 1990s. The quick growth of the Internet as a consumer medium was huge in the history of media. As a result, we found out how has the relationship between media and advertising changed in 20th century.
Friday, March 13, 2020
Crime and Punishment analysis essays Everyone in his or her life experiences some type of mischief or wrong doing in which causes some type of mental disturbance. In Crime and Punishment, Fyodor Dostoyevsky uses the five basic literary elements in order to show the atrocities of crime; that crime is an unnecessary evil that only brings about suffering such as guilt, illness, loneliness and punishment. The five basic literary elements utilized by Dostoyevsky are setting, plot, characterization, style and theme. For instance, Dostoyevsky uses the literary element of setting to show that crime is consequentially followed by guilt, and only causes a negative effect on that person who is culpable of the crime. The setting of Crime and Punishment takes place in St. Petersburg, the capital of Russia, in the midst of its troubled transition to the modern age. Through Dostoyevsky use of setting we see that crime causes suffering and guilt. For example, he uses normal occurrences at a police station to exacerbate the protagonists (Roskolnikov) guilt. Furthermore, we see the suffering of Roskolnikov through Dostoyevskys vivid descriptions of his impoverished room; He woke up tense, bilious, irritable, and looked with hatred at his tiny room. It was a minute cubicle, six steps long...the ceiling was so low that a man of any height could not stand there without the sense that he was about to bump his head.(37) Secondly, through the use of plot, Dostoyevsky displays his feelings that crime is accompanied with loneliness. Ive really got to go. I wanted to tell you mother...and you Dunia, it would be better off if we ...separated for a while.(336) This statement by Roskolnikov indicates the extent to which his crime has isolated him, further demonstrating Dostoyevsky belief that crime entails loneliness. Furthermore, ...
Tuesday, February 25, 2020
Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic - Assignment Example Schematic diagrams of pharmacokinetic model that distinguishes oral versus transmucosal absorption and how the whole process works is presented below, iIn figure 1 Lozenge level is higher than in figure 2. Folates in human beings form a group of water-soluble vitamins B that have similar chemical structures to folic acid and are vital for methionine and nucleotide biosynthesis. Low folate status has been associated with altered DNA methylation, which may affect gene expression, and uracil-induced genomic instability which may result into an increased cancer risk. Pharmacokinetics has a component of vitamin C recommendable for diet allowance. The study has found it that the oral vitamin C has potential for use as a non-toxic, sustainable, therapeutic agent. The amount of vitamin C required for good health represents a challenging aspect of scientific nutrition. The oral vitamin D supplements are well-absorbed from the small intestine amongst human beings. The presence of bile is necessary for absorption of vitamin D which is related to serum proteins and is widely distributed throughout the body. It is stored primarily in the liver and fat. Both forms of vitamin D are inactive and must undergo conversion in the liver and kidneys to form biologically active compounds. Ergocalciferol and cholecalciferol are hydroxylated by hepatic microsomal enzymes to 25 (OH) D. Further conversion of this intermediate form in the kidneys produces the physiologically active form, of dihydroxyvitamin D. Although it is not the biologically active form, the intermediate form, 25 (OH)D, is used to assess vitamin D status since 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels do not typically decrease until clinical symptoms of vitamin D deficiency have become severe. The maximum clinical response typically occurs approximately a month after therapy has been initiated.